Category Archives: History of Marijuana

Marijuana Mass Acceptance Spreads Like Wild Fire

Marijuana legalization on cusp of mass acceptance

In long journey, drug soars from illegal to popular

By Marc Fisher | WASHINGTON POST MARCH 02, 2014
ARTICLE

DAVID WALTER BANKS/FOR THE WASHINGTON POST

People sampled products at the Cannabis Cup last month in San Bernardino, Calif.

SAN BERNARDINO, Calif. — In the ‘‘medication area’’ of the nation’s biggest marijuana exposition, scantily clad young women hand out marshmallows they’ve dipped into a rushing fountain of pot-laced chocolate.

A few steps away, Anthony Ramirez offers free hits from a bong filled with the waxy marijuana extract that his family started producing when a friend’s mother needed relief from the pain of lupus.

Across a vast outdoor plaza lined with hundreds of booths, last month’s Cannabis Cup gathering in southern California attracted more than 10,000 visitors at $40 a ticket.

By midafternoon, some of them are sprawled on overstuffed couches that merchants have thoughtfully provided. Others move from booth to booth, sampling wares from businesses that have risen from the underground economy to create a burgeoning industry of hazy legality.

Vendors hawk brightly colored candies, chocolate bars, slickly designed jars of gourmet peanut butter — all infused with weed. Smokers sample e-cigarettes, vaporizers, and the latest in bongs and glassware.

Agricultural firms display industrial-sized machinery for harvesting plants, electronics firms offer a dazzling array of grow lights, and everywhere, growers lovingly explain the virtues of dozens of plant strains such as Gorilla Glue, Silver Haze, and Crystal Coma.

All in a state where marijuana is not yet quite legal, and all without a single police officer to be seen.

America has been at the edge of marijuana legalization several times during the past half-century, but never as close to mass acceptance of the drug as the nation is today.

Since the 1960s, the United States has traveled on a herky-jerky trip from hippies and head shops to grass-roots backlash by suburban parents, from enthusiastic funding of the war on drugs to a gathering consensus that the war had little effect on marijuana use.

Now, for the first time, marijuana legalization is winning majority support in public opinion polls and a drug used by about 6 percent of Americans — and one-third of the nation’s high school seniors — is starting to shake off its counterculture reputation. It is winning acceptance even from some police, prosecutors, and politicians.

But is this time really different? Why is the current campaign for legalization resonating when previous ones did not?

Today’s leap toward legality is entwined with the financial desperation of cash-strapped states, an Internet-driven revolution in how Americans learn about marijuana and its medicinal uses, and a rising libertarian sensibility in which many liberals and conservatives alike have grown skeptical of government’s role in telling citizens how to medicate themselves.

The skies looked bright for legalization at points in recent decades, and those efforts ultimately went nowhere, as campaigns by parents combined with sharp opposition by law enforcement and elected officials to keep marijuana on the list of substances that can land you in jail.

But in 20 states and the District of Columbia, the booming medical marijuana industry (the drug first became legal to treat ailments in California in 1996) has raised expectations of full legalization.

In 2012, legalized marijuana outpolled President Obama in Colorado; the votes for pot and Obama in Washington state were almost identical at 56 percent each.

Activists in at least six states and the District of Columbia are working to put legalization initiatives on the ballot this year or in 2016.

Legislatures in 13 states are considering bills to legalize a plant that in 80 years has traveled from widely used patent medicine to felony to misdemeanor and now to the cusp of acceptance as one more taxed and regulated mind-altering substance, akin to alcohol or tobacco.

In San Francisco during the ’90s, the nation’s 30-year culture war over marijuana had gone silent, replaced by a new urgency. In the city’s devastated gay neighborhoods, AIDS powerfully shifted the debate.

The 1996 campaign for medical marijuana in California pushed aside groovy graphics and hippie rhetoric and repositioned weed as a tonic for cancer, glaucoma, and AIDS patients. Grandmothers took to TV to explain how marijuana eased their pain, and doctors were enlisted to join the campaign.

Then billionaires George Soros and Peter Lewis each pumped half a million dollars into the effort. The initiative won 56 percent of the vote, opening the door.

During the next decade, 20 states and the District of Columbia followed the same path, but with extremely different results. In California, where medical marijuana permits are as easy to get as a bottle of scotch, more than half a million people have cards letting them shop in hundreds of dispensaries.

In the District of Columbia, where the law requires a 14-page application and recognizes only four diseases as warranting treatment with marijuana, just 120 people have been approved to purchase it since the first dispensary opened last July.

If legalization spreads beyond Colorado and Washington state, it likely will be because of a confluence of forces that have gathered steam during the past decade: Big money is backing the new, aboveground marijuana industry, and the Internet has altered the kind of messages that Americans hear about pot.

Americans have grown more libertarian in their perspective on personal freedoms, the most antimarijuana generation has passed on, and people across the ideological spectrum have grown frustrated with the cost, both financial and social, of decades of arrests and imprisonments.

Legalization drives are underway mainly in states facing tough budget problems.

Keith Stroup, founder of National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, says, ‘‘big money can be made and suddenly the sin doesn’t matter that much.’’

 

spirituality.JPG

Marijuana and Your Higher Self; Intention of Spirit

 

Does Cannabis have something deeper to teach us?

Being aware is in my opinion a very advantagable quality to posess. If one is aware they can better predict outcomes, or possible oppurtunities, obstacles are easily broken becasue one might be very aware of his situation. I’d say Wing Chun, the mentor to Bruce Lee in Ip Man (a fictionalised biopic of the grandmaster of martial arts, Yip Man….watch it if you havn’t) is probably very aware of himself, others and situations around him. And that is an advantage. He spent a good deal of time, effort, focus, and passion on achieving this advantage. And it is for his taking. Intention is a powerful thing. Once you are aware of what you want your intention moves with ease to your next destiny. 

 Sometimes you find many obstacles before you get to where you’re going. And I’d assume along the way you might learn a thing or two about what you need to do. And a couple things about what you ought not to do. Growing is natural. Growing spiritually as well. Everyone is on thier own journey. In a sophisticated life force or spirit I would think that would be the norm. Connecting with people, not controlling them. Growing together. There are still many pople following other people, following lights, and roads, and signs, and going to the same places every day, and not really growing per se. Yes, their vessel changes and they grow “as a person”, but as a spirit? Intention, Curiosity, Questions, Knowledge, Acceptance, Humbleness, integrity, and Respect for oneself prevails in the end. 

Marijuana has been struggling for its freedom, maybe not always, but in the here and now, it has been a struggle. It grows everywhere, and anywhere it can. Without much complaint at that. It provides wonderful medicinal qualities, as well as cereberal effecs that can leave one feeling relaxed, and at times enlightened. A problem you were mulling over in your head, magically presents a solution. Or you enjoyed cleaning, and doing lawnwork so much a new project popped into your head for spring. A new drawing idea, or song. Either way it can be said that when one smokes the herb, they find inspiration. Something that is essential for life, or a least a life worth living. To be “content” and well off, taken care of, or just plain bored is something I never want to be. When you have passion for who you are and what you’re about, thats living. Marijuana has passion for life!

Marijuana helps us be what we want; meditative, relaxed, energetic, creative, respectful, healthy inside and outside. When you’re healing physically and mentally, catching that break so that you can realign and think “out of the box” you’re being you and it’s working great. Your intention can soar. Your smile is bigger and shared more often. You feel accomplished and happy, and want to share that feeling. Marijuana seems to only have good intention for us, and I hope we can revel happily in the love that has been gratefully recieved already. And Smile back. 

 

We have all seen what happens when you love something that isnt real. Something like propaganda, or movies, (realistic all -day-action packed drama, and romantic expectations are lost on movies – two words; False Hopes) even a corrupt government, illusions that makes life hard, and seem not that much fun. It’s hard to say “trust no one”, “hide in a hole” but at times that’s what you may feel like doing. Because intention was misplaced. Maybe just lost on greed. It’s safe in my opinion, to say that something having been around far longer than any government or nation I have existed in, still pushing through has some pretty hardcore intent written in its past, present, and future destiny. Marijuana will not back down. You have to admit, as a plant that has been illegal in the United States for some time now, it sure got around anyways. I’m pretty sure my high school ceramics teacher smoked marijuana while on duty for the “saturday school kids” (being tardy and sorts gets you a fun filled four hour sat in classroom-quiet). I had one once, and I didn’t have Mr. Jones, I had some grouchy lady who could have benefitted from a little Marijuana in my opinion. My intention was to get out of highschool as fast as I could. And I did, 6 months early! woooheeee!

If you put your mind to it, anything is possible. We tell kids that all the time (I was told that) then proceed to shoot down their dreams in the most innocent of ways, without even knowing it. As well as other not so innocent ways becasue of reactions and consequences from outside factors of control beyond our reach that we cannot keep from their lives. I tell my son, “if you want your fire hose (stick) to have a water spout to put out fires, and a fire spout to throw flames, that can happen.” Job security right there. My first thought was to say “no, no that wouldn’t be productive you wouldn’t want to start more fires by confusing the buttons” but in reality, there’d probably be a safety switch, so that’s a non issue. Meaning it’s not a problem. Maybe while I amlost sqwashed a dream, or intention of creativity and spirit, I also recieved perspective. Which is important.

You can be shown pearls and becasue of ones lack in perspective, have them waste away. Intent must be recieved as it is sent out. Revolving so to speak; questions asked, acceptance, understanding, curiosity, respect, growth. These things help us move forward in so many ways. Marijuana can help us move forward in so many ways because Its intention is pure, and honest. Cannabis is Not hiding behind false hopes, and expectations. Just growing, there on the side of the road, or in a garden waiting to be read to or asked a question. 

 They pretty much ingrain into our little innocent minds that we want to get a career and become somebody….as if we’re not already. It would be wiser to teach kids in my humble opinion, how to be themselves and learn about what they are naturally curious and interested in then trying to teach them how to become someone important. There are many children I feel are much more intelligent than some other adults (thier natural skills lost in the assimilation). I have encountered many times where I just look at my son and think… “wow, you get it. You know something I have forgotten, or havn’t learned yet” Age is meaningless. Yes, wisdom exists beyond seniority. Well, possibly. I’m still working our reincarnation issues with that statement. Many times school has molded perfectly good kids into “respectable citizens” .. I’ve decided that what governments consider respectable people, I sometimes consider ignorant sheep without intent or passion. They do what their told, and they are happy they are being told what to do becasue they wouldn’t know what to do if they weren’t. Their intent has effectivly been lost on them. They might be due for a toke sesh. just saying. 

There’s a couple great reads on the spiritual intent of marijuana and growth I found while exploring the idea of Marijuanas Higher Consciousness level. Both tie in so nicely becasue there’s a good example of how a person with poor intentions can effect the intent of Marijuana. That doesn’t mean it’s not okay to use for fun, but just shows that you can’t blame the messenger. Marijuana is not responsible for humanity, rather a bringer of knowledge, perspective, and possibly a new way to see ourselves, and become “A Higher Self”. Heh heh. 

Resurrection of the Higher Self
 
by Matthew Webb, visionquest@eoni.com
Jul 1989
 
[ Erowid Note: This document provides an interesting look into a group advocating the intentional, spiritual, and transformative use of cannabis. The views expressed in this interview share many similiarities with some other cannabis-positive writings and metaphysical viewpoints, but which are not well represented in the Erowid archives, despite their prevalence. ]
 

THE HIGHER SELF

 Blake: “What I meant was, that marijuana can be a powerful tool for self improvement if used with the proper focus.”

MB: “What do you mean it can be a powerful tool?”

Blake: “This plant has the potential for use as a psychoactive booster of consciousness. It is a kind of ‘psychic vitamin’ that can expand ones’ abilities mentally, psychically and spiritually.”

MB: “In certain Native cultures substances such as peyote and psychoactive mushrooms are used for self exploration. Is this what you mean?”

Blake: “Self exploration is actually only a part of this. In native cultures, psychoactive substances are also used to gain what are considered spiritual powers, psychic enhancements, altered and deepened perceptions of truth, greater inner strength, energy, mental alertness and flexibility. Perhaps even more importantly, these substances are used to gain spiritual realization and refinement. They are even used as an aid to unify ones self with Nature and God.”

MB: “And you include marijuana as one of the substances which can accomplish these things?”

Blake: “Yes we do.”

MB: “Don’t you think that if marijuana had such potentials that people would have discovered them long ago? I mean, everyone ‘gets high’ at one time or another, but no one I know of gains any psychic powers or finds God through weed.”

Blake: “In reference to the first part of your question, people did actually discover the spiritual potentials of marijuana long ago. References to this herb in the ancient Vedic texts of India, indicate that it was being used by Rishis and Yogis at that time to gain deepened perceptions. As for the fact that ‘everyone gets high’ as you said, yet few find God or greater personal power, this is just a result of cultural influences. Lets look at it this way. Compare marijuana to driving a car. As soon as you take a puff you’re behind the drivers’ seat. The engine’s running and you can go anywhere you want. But just because you own a car though, does not guarantee that you will take it to useful, productive or enlightening places. You may just drive in circles, get in a wreck or simply drive it off a cliff. It all depends upon your intention when you’re driving as to where you end up, and what you’ll do when you get there. Marijuana is the same way. Although it contains great potentials for self-transformation and can take you to places you never dreamed of, its effect is still primarily limited to the mind that is driving it, so to speak.”

MB: “So you’re saying that the usual effect of just ‘getting stoned’ and oblivious to the world, is due more to user error than to the substance itself.”

Blake: “That is exactly what I mean, and what a pity! Most people just get high within the usual party mode of stimulating amusements, simply because this is the only intention they hold when smoking it.”

Read more:  

http://www.erowid.org/plants/cannabis/cannabis_spirit6.shtml

 

 

Here’s the socond…

By: Teal Swan

Cannabis and Spirituality (Is Pot a Beneficial Spiritual Drug?)

“Pot, otherwise known as cannabis or marijuana, is considered a spiritual medicine and has been used as such since 2000 BC because it is a psychoactive drug. Pot is considered psychoactive because it can alter one’s state of consciousness. Altering one’s consciousness helps them to break free of illusion and the restriction of limited perception.

All plants possess unique energetic frequencies and those frequencies can teach a new way of thinking and being. Cannabis teaches about a great many things including: The path of least resistance, oneness, surrender, release, letting go, present moment, “Livity”, communion, allowing, the impermanence and illusion of the physical dimension, the frailness of boundaries, inhibition, the unhealthiness of control, the fear that lies behind the bold, confident mask of the ego and effortless being.

People react very differently to cannabis; this is because the vibratory rate of the plant is in fact what is altering people’s state of consciousness. An individual human holds a unique vibration. When a person interacts with cannabis, the vibratory rate of that individual has to change in order to match the frequency of the cannabis in order to stay a match to sharing a reality where both the plant and the person coexist. In shamanic tradition, these psychoactive plants (including cannabis) were seen as gatekeepers or tunnel guardians between realms. This matching of frequencies or resonating between person and plant is called “friending”. Friending the plant, allows you to pass between realms. This resonance effect drastically increases when the medicine is ingested. The vibrational resonance causes a cascade of physiological reactions occur, most especially the inhibition of neurotransmitters. It inhibits the brain from functioning at normal capacity. This provides a great deal of relief to many people, who are bombarded by their own resistant thoughts.

The brain is a transceiver of information that is designed to create the illusion of a static 3-D dimension for the purpose of learning. The physical dimension is a learning hologram. When the transceiver is affected or inhibited by certain drugs, the illusion of the physical dimension begins to dismantle and a person can feel or see beyond this dimension into other dimensions and realities. When the transceiver is incapacitated, a person is enables to allow more of his or her own pure being to be fully present and unrestricted. But people react differently to the plant. The question is…why?

A person reacts differently to cannabis for two main reasons. 1) Because people have different vibratory rates. Your enjoyment of cannabis, or lack there of, is directly related to whether the plant holds a higher vibration than you do, or whether you hold a higher vibration than it does. If the plant holds a higher vibration than you do, you are most likely going to experience a sense of calm euphoria and a dramatic reduction of pain in your body. If your vibratory rate is higher, you will most likely experience paranoia and other unwanted side effects from the medicine. 2) Because cannabis is extremely responsive to intention. It enhances the truth of this reality, which is that intention directs energy and intention creates your experience. If you set an intention for what you want cannabis to help you do, it will have that effect. If you do not, it will respond according to the intention of your subconscious. This means if your subconscious wants you to know about something that is plaguing it, or if your subconscious fears the loss of personal boundaries, taking cannabis will enable your subconscious to fulfill it’s intention and you will come face to face with your fears.

The number one benefit of cannabis is that it helps people to release resistance. By affecting the brain like it does, it inhibits the brain from focusing on and translating the resistant, stressful thoughts that cause a negative emotional response within the body. This is why it is so effective at reducing stress. And this is also why it is so effective for the use of pain management. Pain is a symptom of resistance. By causing a person to release resistance and “flow downstream with life” a person is free to be who they really are. More of their true essence is present in the absence of resistance and this is why people often undergo such intense spiritual experiences while under the influence of cannabis. But this is also why it is used recreationally.”

 

Marijuana has shown, through the ages that its intent is TO BE. To be free, to be accepted, accepting, welcomed, welcoming, loved, loving, understood, overstanding, cared for, and connected to. Marijuana wants us all to connect. As we come closer to one another and understand our true selves. we shall revel in the fact that intention is all we need to do this. 

 

 

 

I want to dedicate this Ode to a flower, a Marijuana flower. I found this sweet poem in a book I have called “Peace is Every Step” ” The Path of Mindfulness in Everyday Life” Forward by H.H. The Dalai Lama. It has a wealth of applicable information in it, along with really sweet poems and shorts essays”

In one Called Flower Insights this poem appears at the end. Said to be written ‘by a friend of mine who died at the age of twenty-eight in Saigon, about thirty years ago” 

Stnding quietly by the fence,

you smile your wondrous smile.

I am speechless, and my senses are filled

by the sounds of your beautiful song,

beginningless and endless.

I bow deeply to you. 

“You” refers to a flower, a dahlia. That morning he passded by a fence, he saw that little flower deeply and, struck by the sight of it, he stopped and wrote that poem”

Flower Insights

“There is a story about a flower which is well known in the Zen circles. One day the Buddha held up a flower in front of an audience of 1,250 monks and nuns. He did not say anything for quite a long time. The audience was perfectly silent. Everyone seemed to be thinking hard, trying to see the meaning behind the Buddha’s gesture. Then, suddenly, the Buddha smiled. He smiled because someone in the audience smiled at him and at the flower. The name of that monk was Mahakashyapa. He was the only person who smiled, and the Buddha smiled back and said,”I have a treasure of insight, and I have transmitted it to Mahakashyapa.” That story has been disscussed by many generations of Zen students, and people continue to look for its meaning. To me the meaning is quite simple. When someone holds up a flower and shows it to you, he wants you to see it. If you keep thinking, you miss the flower. The person who was not thinking, who was just himself, was able to encounter the flower in depth, and he smiled.”

“That is the problem of life. If we are not fully ourselves, truly in the present moment, we miss everything. When a child presents himself to you with his smile,if you are not really there-thinking about the future or the past-then the child is not really there for you. The technique of being alive is to go back to yourself in order for the child to appear like a marvelous reality. Then you can see him smile and you can embrace him in your arms.”

 

 

 

 

Hemp; the plant, its characteristics and health benefits.

Per Wikipedia…http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemp

Hemp

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about industrial and foodstuff products that are derived from hemp cultivars of the Cannabis plant . For the usage of Cannabis as a drug, see Cannabis . For other uses, see Hemp (disambiguation).

Hemp field in Côtes-d’Armor, Brittany, France

Hemp (from Old English hænep) is a commonly used term for high growing varieties of the Cannabis plant and its products, which include fiber, oil, and seed. Hemp is refined into products such as hemp seed foods, hemp oil, wax, resin, rope, cloth, pulp, paper, and fuel.

Other variants of the herb Cannabis sativa are widely used as a drug, commonly known in the United States as marijuana. These variants are typically low growing and have higher content of THC. The legality of Cannabis varies widely from country to country, and from state to state in the United States. In many countries regulatory limits for concentrations of psychoactive drug compounds, particularly tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in hemp require the use of strains of the plant which are bred for low content.[1]

Contents

Uses

Hemp grown for milk animal fodder

Hemp is used for many varieties of products including the manufacture of cordage of varying tensile strength, durable clothing and nutritional products. The bast fibers can be used in 100% hemp products, but are commonly blended with other organic fibers such as flax, cotton or silk, for apparel and furnishings, most commonly at a 55%/45% hemp/cotton blend. The inner two fibers of hemp are more woody and are more often used in non-woven items and other industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter. The oil from the fruits (“seeds”) oxidizes (commonly, though inaccurately, called “drying”) to become solid on exposure to air, similar to linseed oil, and is sometimes used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, and in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird seed mix as well.[2] A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the EU was used in animal and bird feed.[3] Hemp seed is also used as a fishing bait.[4]

In modern times hemp is used for industrial purposes including paper, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, construction (as with Hempcrete and insulation), body products, health food and bio-fuel.

Food

Hemp seeds

Hemp seeds can be eaten raw, ground into a meal, sprouted, made into hemp milk (akin to soy milk), prepared as tea,[5] and used in baking. The fresh leaves can also be consumed in salads. Products include cereals, frozen waffles, hemp milk ice cream, hemp tofu, and nut butters. A few companies produce value added hemp seed items that include the seed oils, whole hemp grain (which is sterilized by law in the United States, where they import it from China and Canada), dehulled hemp seed (the whole seed without the mineral rich outer shell), hemp flour, hemp cake (a by-product of pressing the seed for oil) and hemp protein powder.[6]

Market share

Within the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) has treated hemp as purely a non-food crop. Seed appears on the UK market as a legal food product, and cultivation licenses are available for this purpose. In North America, hemp seed food products are sold, typically in health food stores or through mail order. The United States Department of Agriculture estimates that “the market potential for hemp seed as a food ingredient is unknown. However, it probably will remain a small market, like those for sesame and poppy seeds.”[7] Since 2007 the commercial success of hemp food products has grown considerably.[8][9]

Nutrition

Typical nutritional analysis
of hulled hemp seeds[10]

Calories/100 g
567 kcal

Protein
30.6

Carbohydrate
10.9

Dietary fiber
6.0

Fat
47.2

Saturated fat
5.2

Palmitic 16:0
3.4

Stearic 18:0
1.5

Monounsaturated fat
5.8

Oleic 18:1 (Omega-9)
5.8

Polyunsaturated fat
36.2

Linoleic 18:2 (Omega-6)
27.6

Linolenic 18:3 (Omega-3)
8.7

Gamma-Linolenic 18:3 (Omega-6)
0.8

Cholesterol
0 mg

Moisture
4.7

Ash
6.6

Vitamin A (B-Carotene)
4.0 IU/100g

Thiamine (Vit B1)
1.4 mg

Riboflavin (Vit B2)
0.3 mg

Pyridoxine (Vit B6)
0.1 mg

Vitamin C
1.0 mg

Vitamin E
9.0 IU/100g

Sodium
9.0 mg

Calcium
74.0 mg

Iron
4.7 mg

Approximately 44% of the weight of hempseed is edible oils, containing about 80% essential fatty acids (EFAs); e.g., linoleic acid, omega-6 (LA, 55%), alpha-linolenic acid, omega-3 (ALA, 22%), in addition to gamma-linolenic acid, omega-6 (GLA, 1–4%) and stearidonic acid, omega-3 (SDA, 0–2%). Proteins (including edestin) are the other major component (33%). Hempseed’s amino acid profile is close to “complete” when compared to more common sources of proteins such as meat, milk, eggs and soy.[11] Hemp protein contains all 21 known amino acids, including the 9 essential ones[12] adult bodies cannot produce. Proteins are considered complete when they contain all the essential amino acids in sufficient quantities and ratios to meet the body’s needs. The proportions of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in one tablespoon (15 ml) per day of hemp oil easily provides human daily requirements for EFAs.

  • Hemp substitute milk

  • Japanese hemp seed seasoning

  • Swiss hemp beer uses blossoms

  • Hemp seed

Storage

Hemp oil, like any food oil rich in essential fatty acids, will spontaneously oxidize and turn rancid within a short period of time if not stored properly; Its shelf life is extended when stored in a dark airtight container and refrigerated.

Fiber

Hemp stem showing fibers.

Hemp fiber was widely used throughout history. Items ranging from rope, to fabrics, to industrial materials were made from hemp fiber. Hemp was often used to make sail canvas, and the word canvas derives from cannabis.[13][14] Today, a modest hemp fabric industry exists, and hemp fibers can be used in clothing.[15] Pure hemp has a texture similar to linen.[16]

  • Hemp dress

  • Hemp dress

  • 100% hemp fabric

  • Hemp sack (Japan)

Building material

Main article: hempcrete

Concrete-like blocks made with hemp and lime have been used as an insulating material for construction. Such blocks are not strong enough to be used for structural elements; they must be supported by a brick, wood, or steel frame.[17] However hemp fibres are extremely strong and durable and have been shown to be used in replacement of wood for many jobs including creating very durable and breathable homes.

The first example of the use of hempcrete was in 1986 in France with the renovation of the Maison de la Turque in Nogent-sur-Seine by the innovator Charles Rasetti.[18] In the UK hemp lime was first used in 2000 for the construction of two test dwellings in Haverhill.[19] Designed by Modece Architects,[20] who pioneered hemp’s use in UK construction, the hemp houses were monitored in comparison with other standard dwellings by BRE. Completed in 2009, The Renewable House is one of the most technologically advanced made from hemp-based materials.[21] The first US home made of hemp-based materials was completed in August 2010 in Asheville, North Carolina.[22]

  • Hemp fiber board

  • Hemp thermal insulation

  • Hemp interior thermal insulation blocks

  • Hemp acoustic ceiling insulation

  • Concrete block made with hemp in France

Plastic and composite materials

Main article: Bioplastic

A mixture of fibreglass, hemp fiber, kenaf, and flax has been used since 2002 to make composite panels for automobiles.[8][23] The choice of which bast fiber to use is primarily based on cost and availability. Various car makers are beginning to use hemp in their cars, including Audi, BMW, Ford, GM, Chrysler, Honda, Iveco, Lotus, Mercedes, Mitsubishi, Porsche, Saturn, Volkswagen[24] and Volvo. For example, the Lotus Eco Elise[25] and the Mercedes C-Class both contain hemp (up to 20 kg in each car in the case of the latter).[26]

  • Hemp plastic interior of a car door

  • Hemp plastic automobile glove box

  • Hemp plastic column, automobile

  • Hemp composite sink basin

Paper
History and development

Wrapping paper with hemp fiber excavated from the Han Tomb of Wu Di (140-87 BC) at Baqiao, Xi’An

The first identified coarse paper, made from hemp, dates to the early Western Han Dynasty, two hundred years before the nominal invention of papermaking by Cai Lun, who improved and standardized paper production using a range of inexpensive materials, including hemp ends, approximately 2000 years ago.[27] Recycled hemp clothing, rags and fishing nets were used as inputs for paper production.

The Saint Petersburg, Russia paper mill of Goznak opened in 1818. It used hemp as its main input material. Paper from the mill was used in the printing of “bank notes, stamped paper, credit bills, postal stamps, bonds, stocks, and other watermarked paper.”[28]

In 1916, U.S. Department of Agriculture chief scientists Lyster Hoxie Dewey and Jason L. Merrill created paper made from hemp pulp and concluded that paper from hemp hurds was “favorable in comparison with those used with pulp wood.”[29][30] Modern research has not confirmed the positive finding about hemp hurds. They are only 32% and 38% cellulose.[31] On the other hand, hemp contains only 4-10% lignin against the 18-30% found in wood. This lignin must be removed chemically and wood requires more use of chemicals in the process.[32] The actual production of hemp fiber in the U.S continued to decline until 1933 to around 500 tons/year. Between 1934-35, the cultivation of hemp began to increase but still at a very low level and with no significant increase of paper from hemp.[33][34]

Contemporary

Hemp has never been used for commercial high-volume paper production due to its relatively high processing cost.[35] Currently there is a small niche market for hemp pulp, for example as cigarette paper.[36] Hemp fiber is mixed with fiber from other sources than hemp. In 1994 there was no significant production of 100% true hemp paper.[37] World hemp pulp production was believed to be around 120,000 tons per year in 1991 which was about 0.05% of the world’s annual pulp production volume.[38] The total world production of hemp fiber had in 2003 declined to about 60,000 from 80,000 tons.[36] This can be compared to a typical pulp mill for wood fiber, which is never smaller than 250,000 tons per annum.[37][39] The cost of hemp pulp is approximately six times that of wood pulp,[38] mostly because of the small size and outdated equipment of the few hemp processing plants in the Western world, and because hemp is harvested once a year (during August)[citation needed] and needs to be stored to feed the mill the whole year through. This storage requires a lot of (mostly manual) handling of the bulky stalk bundles. Another issue is that the entire hemp plant cannot be economically prepared for paper production. While the wood products industry uses nearly 100% of the fiber from harvested trees, only about 25% of the dried hemp stem — the bark, called bast — contains the long, strong fibers desirable for paper production.[40] All this accounts for a high raw material cost. Hemp pulp is bleached with hydrogen peroxide, a process today also commonly used for wood pulp.

Market share

Around the year 2000, the production quantity of flax and hemp pulp total 25000-30000 tons per year, having been produced from approximately 37000-45000 tonnes fibers. Up to 80% of the produced pulp is used for specialty papers (including 95% of cigarette paper). Only about 20% hemp fiber input goes into the standard pulp area and are here mostly in lower quality (untreated oakum high shive content added) wood pulps. With hemp pulp alone, the proportion of specialty papers probably at about 99%. The market is considered saturated with little or no growth in this area.[41][42]

Jewelry

Main article: Hemp jewelry

Hemp and bead Jewelry

Hemp jewelry is the product of knotting hemp twine through the practice of macramé. Hemp jewelry includes bracelets, necklaces, anklets, rings, watches and other adornments. Some jewelry features beads made from glass, stone, wood and bones. The hemp twine varies in thickness and comes in a variety of colors. There are many different stitches used to create hemp jewelry, however, the half knot and full knot stitches are most common.

Cordage

Hemp rope

Hemp rope was used in the age of sailing ships, though the rope had to be protected by tarring, since hemp rope has a propensity for breaking from rot, as the capillary effect of the rope-woven fibers tended to hold liquid at the interior, while seeming dry from the outside.[43] Tarring was a labor-intensive process, and earned sailors the nickname “Jack Tar“. Hemp rope was phased out when Manila, which does not require tarring, became widely available. Manila is sometimes referred to as Manila hemp, but is not related to hemp; it is abacá, a species of banana.

Animal bedding

Hemp straw animal bedding

Hemp shives are the core of the stem, hemp hurds are broken parts of the core. In the EU, they are used for animal bedding (horses, for instance), or for horticultural mulch.[44] Industrial hemp is much more profitable if both fibers and shives (or even seeds) can be used.

Water and soil purification

Hemp can be used as a “mop crop” to clear impurities out of wastewater, such as sewage effluent, excessive phosphorus from chicken litter, or other unwanted substances or chemicals. Eco-technologist Dr. Keith Bolton from Southern Cross University in Lismore, New South Wales, Australia, is a leading researcher in this area. Hemp is being used to clean contaminants at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site. This is known as phytoremediation – the process by the cleaning radiation as well as a variety of other toxins from the soil, water, and air.[45]

Weed control

Main article: Weed control#Organic methods

The dense growth of hemp helps kill weeds, even thistle.

Hemp, because of its height, dense foliage and its high planting density as a crop, is a very effective and long used method of killing tough weeds in farming by minimizing the pool of weed seeds of the soil.[46] Using hemp this way can help farmers avoid the use of herbicides, to help gain organic certification and to gain the benefits of crop rotation per se. Due to its rapid, dense growth characteristics, in some jurisdictions hemp is considered a prohibited noxious weed, much like Scotch Broom. It has been used extensively to kill weeds in agriculture.

Fuel

Biodiesel sample

Biofuels, such as biodiesel and alcohol fuel, can be made from the oils in hemp seeds and stalks, and the fermentation of the plant as a whole, respectively. Biodiesel produced from hemp is sometimes known as “hempoline”.[47]

Filtered hemp oil can be used directly to only power diesel engines. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine, which he intended to fuel “by a variety of fuels, especially vegetable and seed oils, which earlier were used for oil lamps, i.e. the Argand lamp.”[48][49][50]

Production of vehicle fuel from hemp is very small. Commercial biodiesel and biogas is typically produced from cereals, coconuts, palmseeds and cheaper raw materials like garbage, wastewater, dead plant and animal material, animal feces and kitchen waste.[51]

Cultivation

Hemp being harvested

Hemp is usually planted between March and May in the northern hemisphere, between September and November in the southern hemisphere.[52] It matures in about three to four months.

Millennia of selective breeding have resulted in varieties that look quite different. Also, breeding since circa 1930 has focused quite specifically on producing strains which would perform very poorly as sources of drug material. Hemp grown for fiber is planted closely, resulting in tall, slender plants with long fibers. “Until the early 1900s industrial hemp was a valuable crop used all over the world for its strong fibers and oil seeds. Today, however, the common perception of the industrial hemp plant is generally negative and associated with the drug marijuana. This perception is the legacy of a century of powerful influences constructing hemp as a dangerous drug, even though it is not a drug and it has the potential to be a profitable alternative crop. In the United States, the public’s perception of hemp as marijuana has blocked hemp from becoming a useful crop and product,”[53] in spite of its vital importance prior to World War II.[54] Ideally, according to Britain’s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the herb should be desiccated and harvested towards the end of flowering. This early cropping reduces the seed yield but improves the fiber yield and quality.[55] In these strains of industrial hemp the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content would have been very low.[53]

The seeds are sown from mid April to mid May with grain drills to 4–6 cm sowing depth. Hemp needs less fertilizer than corn does. A total of 60–150 kg of nitrogen, 40–140 kg phosphorus (P2O5) and 75–200 kg of potassium [5] per acre for hemp fiber made before sowing and again later, maybe three to four weeks. When practiced, especially in France double use of fiber and seed fertilization with nitrogen doses up to 100 kg / ha rather low. Organic fertilizers such as manure can utilize industrial hemp well. Neither weeds nor crop protection measures are necessary.[53]

Cultivars

longitudinal section photo

Cannabis sativa stem

low-angle photo-shot

Hemp strains USO-xx and Zolotoniski-xx

A total of 46 varieties of hemp with low levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are certified by the European Union (EU).[56] They have, unlike other types, a very high fiber content of 30-40%. In contrast to cannabis for medical use, varieties grown for fiber and seed have less than 0.2% THC and they are unsuitable for producing hashish and marijuana.[57] The most important cannabinoid in industrial hemp is cannabidiol (CBD) with a proportion of 1 to 5%.

black and white drawing: C. sativa tall, C. indica middle, C. ruderalis small

The variety of appearances for cannabis. Only C. sativa (left) is suited for industrial hemp, but it also has medicinal varieties.

Cannabis sativa L. subsp. sativa var. sativa is the variety grown for industrial use, while C. sativa subsp. indica generally has poor fiber quality and is primarily used for recreational and medicinal purposes. The major difference between the two types of plants is the appearance and the amount of Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) secreted in a resinous mixture by epidermal hairs called glandular trichomes, although they can also be distinguished genetically.[58] Oilseed and fiber varieties of Cannabis approved for industrial hemp production produce only minute amounts of this psychoactive drug, not enough for any physical or psychological effects. Typically, hemp contains below 0.3% THC, while cultivars of Cannabis grown for recreational use can contain anywhere from 2% to over 20%.[59]

Harvesting

Industrial hempseed harvesting machine in France.

Smallholder plots are usually harvested by hand. The plants are cut at 2 to 3 cm above the soil and left on the ground to dry. Mechanical harvesting is now common, using specially adapted cutter-binders or simpler cutters.

The cut hemp is laid in swathes to dry for up to four days. This was traditionally followed by retting, either water retting (the bundled hemp floats in water) or dew retting (the hemp remains on the ground and is affected by the moisture in dew, and by molds and bacterial action). Modern processes use steam and machinery to separate the fiber, a process known as thermomechanical pulping.

  • USO-xx and Zolotoniski-xx hemp strains 007.jpg

  • Récolte chanvre1.jpg

  • Saint-Flavy (Aube) culture du Chanvre.JPG

  • USO-xx and Zolotoniski-xx hemp strains 019.jpg

Location and crop rotation

Hemp maze in France

For profitable hemp farming, particularly deep, humus-rich, nutrient-rich soil with controlled water flow is preferable. Water logged acidic, compressed or extremely light (sandy) soils primarily affect the early development of plants. Steep slopes and high altitudes of more than 400 m above sea level are best avoided. Hemp is relatively insensitive to cold temperatures and can withstand frost down to -5 degrees C. Seeds can germinate down to 1-3 degrees. Hemp needs a lot of heat, so earlier varieties come to maturation. The water requirement is 300-500 l / kg dry matter. Up to 3 feet growing roots into the soil can also use water supplies from deeper soil layers. Worth noting is that the water requirement of hemp is at least 14 times lower than that of cotton which takes between 7 000-29 000 l/kg, according to WWF.

Hemp benefits crops grown after it. For this reason it is generally grown before winter cereals. Advantageous changes are high weed suppression, soil loosening by the large hemp root system and the positive effect on soil tilth. Since hemp is very self-compatible, it can also be grown several years in a row in the same fields (monoculture).

Diseases

Main article: List of hemp diseases

Hemp plants can be vulnerable to various pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and other miscellaneous pathogens. Such diseases often lead to reduced fiber quality, stunted growth, and death of the plant. These diseases rarely affect the yield of a hemp field, so hemp production is not traditionally dependent on the use of pesticides.

Environmental impact

Hemp is considered by a 1998 study in Environmental Economics to be environmentally friendly due to a decrease of land use and other environmental impacts, indicating a possible decrease of ecological footprint in a US context compared to typical benchmarks.[60] A 2010 study, however, that compared the production of paper specifically from hemp and eucalyptus concluded that “industrial hemp presents higher environmental impacts than eucalyptus paper”; however, the article also highlights that “there is scope for improving industrial hemp paper production”.[61] Hemp is also claimed to require few pesticides and no herbicides, and it has been called a carbon negative raw material.[62][63] Results indicate that high yield of hemp may require high total nutrient levels (field plus fertilizer nutrients) similar to a high yielding wheat crop.[64]

Producers

The world-leading producer of hemp is China, with smaller production in Europe, Chile and North Korea. Over thirty countries produce industrial hemp, including Australia, Austria, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey and Ukraine.[65][66]

The United Kingdom, and Germany resumed commercial production in the 1990s. British production is mostly used as bedding for horses; other uses are under development. Companies in Canada, the UK, the United States and Germany, among many others, process hemp seed into a growing range of food products and cosmetics; many traditional growing countries still continue to produce textile-grade fibre.

Dried hemp stalks displayed at the International Hemp Fair in Vienna

Air dry stem yields in Ontario have from 1998 and onward ranged from 2.6-14.0 tonnes of dry, retted stalks per hectare (1-5.5 t/ac) at 12% moisture. Yields in Kent County, have averaged 8.75 t/ha (3.5 t/ac). Northern Ontario crops averaged 6.1 t/ha (2.5 t/ac) in 1998. Statistic for the European Union for 2008 to 2010 say that the average yield of hemp straw has varied between 6.3 and 7.3 ton per ha.[67] Only a part of that is bast fiber. Approximately one tonne of bast fiber and 2-3 tonnes of core material can be decorticated from 3-4 tonnes of good quality, dry retted straw. For an annual yield of this level is it in Ontario recommended to add nitrogen (N):70–110 kg/ha, phosphate (P2O5): up to 80 kg/ha and potash (K2O): 40–90 kg/ha.[68] The average yield of dry hemp stalks in Europe was 6 ton/ha (2.4 ton/ac) in 2001 and 2002.[3]

FAO argue that an optimum yield of hemp fiber is more than 2 tonnes per ha, while average yields are around 650 kg/ha.[69]

Australia

In the Australian states of Tasmania, Victoria, Queensland and, most recently, New South Wales, the state governments have issued licences to grow hemp for industrial use. The state of Tasmania pioneered the licensing of hemp in 1990.[citation needed] The state of Victoria was an early adopter in 1998, and has reissued the regulation in 2008.[70]

Hemp production in tonnes 2003–2004
FAOSTAT (FAO)

China
23000
79 %
24000
79 %

France
4300
15 %
4300
14 %

Chile
1250
4 %
1250
4 %

Russia
200
1 %
300
1 %

Turkey
150
1 %
150
< 1%

Ukraine
150
1 %
150
< 1%

Romania
100
< 1 %
100
< 1%

Hungary
40
< 1 %
40
< 1%

Poland
15
< 1 %
15
< 1%

Spain
8
< 1 %
8
< 1%

Serbia
2
< 1 %
2
< 1%

Total
29215
100 %
30315
100 %

Queensland has allowed industrial production under licence since 2002,[71] where the issuance is controlled under the Drugs Misuse Act 1986.[72] Most recently, New South Wales now issues licences[73] under a law, the Hemp Industry Regulations Act 2008 (No 58), that came into effect as of 6 November 2008.[74]

Canada

Commercial production (including cultivation) of industrial hemp has been permitted in Canada since 1998 under licenses and authorization issued by Health Canada (9,725 ha in 2004, 5450 ha in 2009).[75][76] It is expected that hemp will contribute $100 million to Canada’s economy.[77]

France

Industrial hemp production in France

France is Europe’s biggest producer with 8,000 hectares cultivated. 70-80% of the hemp fibre produced in Europe in 2003 was used for specialty pulp for cigarette papers and technical applications. About 15% is used in the automotive sector and 5-6% were used for insulation mats. Approximately 95% of hurds were used as animal bedding, while almost 5% were used in the building sector.[3] In 2010/2011, a total of 11 000 ha was cultivated with hemp in the EU, a decline compared with previous year.[67][78]

Russia

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This section requires expansion. (August 2012)

  • Russian hemp

  • Hemp seed warehouse (Russia)

United Kingdom

A hemp crop in Peasenhall Road, Walpole, Suffolk, UK

In the United Kingdom, cultivation licences are issued by the Home Office under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971. When grown for non-drug purposes, hemp is referred to as industrial hemp, and a common product is fibre for use in a wide variety of products, as well as the seed for nutritional aspects and for the oil. Feral hemp or ditch weed is usually a naturalized fibre or oilseed strain of Cannabis that has escaped from cultivation and is self-seeding.

United States

A display about the uses of Hemp in the Chicago Field Museum

Hemp is not legal to grow in the U.S. under Federal law because of its relation to marijuana, and any imported hemp products must meet a zero tolerance level. It is considered a controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act (P.L. 91-513; 21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.). Some states have made the cultivation of industrial hemp legal, but these states — North Dakota, Hawaii, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Oregon, California, Montana, West Virginia and Vermont — have not yet begun to grow it because of resistance from the federal Drug Enforcement Administration. In 2013, after the legalization of marijuana in the state, several farmers in Colorado planted and harvested several acres of hemp, bringing in the first hemp crop in the United States in over half a century.[79] Colorado,[80] Vermont, California, and North Dakota have passed laws enabling hemp licensure. All four states are waiting for permission to grow hemp from the DEA. Currently,[when?] North Dakota representatives are pursuing legal measures to force DEA approval.[81] Oregon has licensed industrial hemp as of August 2009.[82] In February 2014, Congress passed an agriculture bill that eased restrictions on cultivation in 10 states.[83]

History

Yangshao culture (ca. 4800 BCE) amphora with impressed hemp cord design

Radical 200 (麻 or ), the Chinese character for hemp, depicts two plants under a shelter. The use of hemp in Taiwan dates back at least 10,000 years.[84]

Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, 512 A.D.

Hemp is one of the earliest domesticated plants known.[85] It has been cultivated by many civilizations for over 12,000 years.[86][87] Hemp use archaeologically dates back to the Neolithic Age in China, with hemp fiber imprints found on Yangshao culture pottery dating from the 5th millennium BC.[84][88] The Chinese later used hemp to make clothes, shoes, ropes, and an early form of paper.[84] The classical Greek historian Herodotus (ca. 480 BC) reported that the inhabitants of Scythia would often inhale the vapors of hemp-seed smoke, both as ritual and for their own pleasurable recreation.[89]

Textile expert Elizabeth Wayland Barber summarizes the historical evidence that Cannabis sativa, “grew and was known in the Neolithic period all across the northern latitudes, from Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Romania, Ukraine) to East Asia (Tibet and China),” but, “textile use of Cannabis sativa does not surface for certain in the West until relatively late, namely the Iron Age.”[90] “I strongly suspect, however, that what catapulted hemp to sudden fame and fortune as a cultigen and caused it to spread rapidly westwards in the first millennium B.C. was the spread of the habit of pot-smoking from somewhere in south-central Asia, where the drug-bearing variety of the plant originally occurred. The linguistic evidence strongly supports this theory, both as to time and direction of spread and as to cause.”[91]

Jews living in Palestine in the 2nd century were familiar with the cultivation of hemp, as witnessed by a reference to it in the Mishna (Kil’ayim 2:5) as a variety of plant, along with Arum, that sometimes takes as many as three years to grow from a seedling. In late medieval Germany and Italy, hemp was employed in cooked dishes, as filling in pies and tortes, or boiled in a soup.[92] Hemp in later Europe was mainly cultivated for its fibers, and was used for ropes on many ships, including those of Christopher Columbus. The use of hemp as a cloth was centered largely in the countryside, with higher quality textiles being available in the towns.

The Spaniards brought hemp to the Western Hemisphere and cultivated it in Chile starting about 1545.[93] However, in May 1607, “hempe” was among the crops Gabriel Archer observed being cultivated by the natives at the main Powhatan village, where Richmond, Virginia is now situated;[94] and in 1613, Samuell Argall reported wild hemp “better than that in England” growing along the shores of the upper Potomac. As early as 1619, the first Virginia House of Burgesses passed an Act requiring all planters in Virginia to sow “both English and Indian” hemp on their plantations.[95] The Puritans are first known to have cultivated hemp in New England in 1645.[93]

United States “Marihuana” production permit. In the United States, hemp cultivation is legally prohibited, but during World War II farmers were encouraged to grow hemp for cordage, to replace Manila hemp previously obtained from Japanese-controlled areas. The U.S. government produced a film explaining the uses of hemp, called Hemp for Victory.

George Washington pushed for the growth of Hemp and even grew hemp himself. In May 1765 he noted in his diary about the sowing of seeds each day until mid-April. Then he recounts the harvest in October which he grew 27 bushels that year. He and Thomas Jefferson (also a hemp farmer who developed a better way to break the stalk by modifying a thresher) would also share the flowers of the plant for smoking. They both preferred this to drinking alcohol or using tobacco, which they both saw as health concerns for the new land.

George Washington also imported the medicinal Indian Hemp plant from Asia, basically Marijuana, which was used for fiber and intoxicating resin production. In a letter to William Pearce who managed the plants for him Washington says, “What was done with the Indian Hemp plant from last summer? It ought, all of it, to be sown again; that not only a stock of seed sufficient for my own purposes might have been raisied, but to have desseminated seed to others; as it is more valuable then common Hemp.” He anxiously sent more letters to Pearce, to get the most out of the seeds.

Other presidents known to have used cannabis include James Madison (claimed it inspired him to found a nation on democratic principals), James Monroe (used until he was 73 years old), Andrew Jackson, Zachary Taylor, Franklin Pierce, Bill Clinton (pretty sure), George W. Bush (pretty sure), and Barack Obama. [96]

Historically, hemp production had made up a significant portion of antebellum Kentucky’s economy. Before the American Civil War, many slaves worked on plantations producing hemp.[97]

In 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed in the United States. It levied a tax on anyone who dealt commercially in cannabis, hemp, or marijuana. The reasons that hemp was also included in this law are disputed—several scholars have claimed that the Act was passed in order to destroy the US hemp industry,[98][99][100] with the primary involvement of businessmen Andrew Mellon, Randolph Hearst, and the Du Pont family.[98][100]

One claim is that Hearst believed that his extensive timber holdings were threatened by the invention of the decorticator, which he feared would allow hemp to become a very cheap substitute for the paper pulp that was used in the newspaper industry.[98][101] Modern science suggests that this fear would have been unfounded. Improvements of the decorticators in the 1930s, machines that separate the fibers from the hemp stem, could not make hemp fiber a very cheap substitute for fibers from other sources due to the fact that the long strong fibers are only found in the bast, the outer part of the stem. Only about 1/3 of the stem are long and strong fibers.[31][98][102]

Another claim is that Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America at that time, had invested heavily in DuPont‘s new synthetic fiber, nylon, and believed that the replacement of the traditional resource, hemp, was integral to the new product’s success.[98][103][104][105][106][107][108][109]

The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in a unanimous verdict decided in Leary v. United States, and ultimately superseded by the Controlled Substances Act of 1970.

Hemp was used extensively by the United States during World War II. Uniforms, canvas, and rope were among the main textiles created from the hemp plant at this time.[110] Much of the hemp used was cultivated in Kentucky and the Midwest. During World War II, the U.S. produced a short 1942 film, Hemp for Victory, promoting hemp as a necessary crop to win the war.

Historical cultivation

Suitable climate zones for hemp cultivation

Hemp has been grown for millennia in Asia and the Middle East for its fibre. Commercial production of hemp in the West took off in the eighteenth century, but was grown in the sixteenth century in eastern England.[111] Because of colonial and naval expansion of the era, economies needed large quantities of hemp for rope and oakum. Other important producing countries were China, North Korea, Hungary, the former Yugoslavia, Romania, Poland, France and Italy.

In Western Europe, the cultivation of hemp was not legally banned by the 1930s, but the commercial cultivation stopped by then, due to decreased demand compared to increasingly popular artificial fibres.[112] Theories about the potential for commercial cultivation of hemp in very large quantities have been strongly criticized by European experts on Hemp such as Dr. Hayo M.G. van der Werf and Dr. Ivan Bûcsa. From their perspective hemp was, outside the U.S, simply out-competed by other fibers in most applications.[31][102]

Soviet Union

Harvesting hemp in the USSR, 1956

From the 1950s to the 1980s, the Soviet Union was the world’s largest producer (3,000 km² in 1970). The main production areas were in Ukraine,[113] the Kursk and Orel regions of Russia, and near the Polish border. Since its inception in 1931, the Hemp Breeding Department at the Institute of Bast Crops in Hlukhiv (Glukhov), Ukraine, has been one of the world’s largest centers for developing new hemp varieties, focusing on improving fiber quality, per-hectare yields, and low THC content.[114][115]

Japan

Japanese Shinto shrine with rope made of hemp

In Japan, hemp was historically used as paper and a fiber crop. There is archaeological evidence cannabis was used for clothing and the seeds were eaten in Japan back to the Jōmon period (10,000 to 300 BCE). Many Kimono designs portray hemp, or asa (Japanese: 麻), as a beautiful plant. In 1948, marijuana was restricted as a narcotic drug. The ban on marijuana imposed by the United States authorities was alien to Japanese culture, as the drug had never been widely used in Japan before. Though these laws against marijuana are some of the world’s strictest, allowing five years imprisonment for possession of the drug, they exempt hemp growers, whose crop is used to make robes for Buddhist monks and loincloths for Sumo wrestlers. Because marijuana use in Japan has doubled in the past decade, these exemptions have recently been called into question.[116]

Portugal

The cultivation of hemp in Portuguese lands began around the fourteenth century onwards, it was raw material for the preparation of rope and plugs for the Portuguese ships. Colonies for factories for the production of flax hemp, such as the Royal Flax Hemp Factory in Brazil.

After the Restoration of Independence in 1640, in order to recover the ailing Portuguese naval fleet, were encouraged its cultivation as the Royal Decree of D. John IV in 1656. At that time its cultivation was carried out in Trás-os-Montes, Zone Tower Moncorvo, more precisely in Vilariça Valley, fertile land for any crop irrigation, and a very large area, flat and very fertile culture still wide until the last century grew up tobacco, a plant that needs a large space to expand and grow, the area lies in the valley of Serra de Bornes.

As of 1971, this cultivar is considered illegal because of marijuana, a decision subsequently revoked by the European Union.[citation needed][clarification neede

Chinese History of Marijuana and Hemp Cultivation

Really great timeline of Chinease history of Hemp farming and use of Medical Marijuana.

http://antiquecannabisbook.com/chap2B/China/CharacterHistory.htm

 

“Like the practice of medicine around the world, early Chinese doctoring was based on the concept of demons. If a person were ill, it was because some demon had invaded his body. The only way to cure him was to drive the demon out. The early priest-doctors resorted to all kinds of tricks, some of which were rather sophisticated, like drug therapy, which we will examine shortly. Other methods involved outright magic. By means of charms, amulets, spells, incantations, exhortations, sacrifices, etc., the priest-doctor did his utmost to find some way of getting the upper hand over the malevolent demon believed responsible for an illness.”

Among the weapons to come out of the magical kit bag of the ancient Chinese conjurers were cannabis stalks into which snake-like figures were carved. Armed with these war hammers, they went to do battle with the unseen enemy on his home ground – the sickbed. Standing over the body of the stricken patient, his cannabis stalk poised to strike, the priest pounded the bed and commanded the demon to be gone. If the illness were psychosomatic and the patient had faith in the conjurer, he occasionally recovered. If his problem were organic, he rarely improved.

Whatever the outcome, the rite itself is intriguing. Although there is no way of knowing for sure how it came about, the Chinese tell a story about one of their emperors named Liu Chi-nu that may explain the connection between cannabis, snakes, and illness. One day Liu was out in the fields cutting down some hemp, when he saw a snake. Taking no chances that it might bite him, he shot the serpent with an arrow. The next day he returned to the place and heard the sound of a mortar and pestle. Tracking down the noise, he found two boys grinding marijuana leaves. When he asked them what they were doing, the boys told him they were preparing a medicine to give to their master who had been wounded by an arrow shot by Liu Chi-nu. Liu Chi-nu then asked what the boys would do to Liu Chi-nu if they ever found him. Suprisingly, the boys answered that they could not take revenge on him because Liu Chi-nu was destined to become emperor of China. Liu berated the boys for their foolishness and they ran away, leaving behind the medicine. Some time later Liu himself was injured and he applied the crushed marijuana leaves to his wound. The medicine healed him and Liu subsequently announced his discovery to the people of China and they began using it for their injuries.

Another story tells of a farmer who saw a snake carrying some marijuana leaves to place on the wound of another snake. The next day the wounded snake was healed. Intrigued, the farmer tested the plant on his own wound and was cured.[17]

Whether these stories had anything to do with the idea that marijuana had magical power or not, the fact is that despite the progress of Chinese medicine far beyond the age of superstition, the practice of striking beds with stalks made from marijuana stems continued to be followed until the Middle Ages.[18]”


Some Chinese denounced marijuana as the “liberator of sin”.[22] A late edition of the Pen Ts’au asserted that if too many marijuana seeds were eaten, they would cause one to “see demons”. But if taken over a long time, “one can communicate with the spirits”.[23]

However, by the first century A.D., Taoists became interested in magic and alchemy,[24] and were recommending addition of cannabis seeds to their incense burners. The hallucinations thus produced were highly valued as a means of achieving immortality.[25]

For some people, seeing spirits was the main reason for using cannabis. Meng Shen, a seventh-century physician, adds, however, that if anyone wanted to see spirits in this way, he would have to eat cannabis seeds for at least a hundred days.[26]

The Chinese have always been a highly reserved people, a nation rarely given to excesses. Temperance and restraint are cherished virtues of their society. But these are ideal traits, not always easy to live up to. And on more than one occasion, the waywardness of segments of the Chinese population was denounced by the authorities.

In a book attributed to Shen-Nung’s successor, the “yellow emperor”, for example, the author felt that alcoholism had truly gotten out of hand:

Nowadays people use wine as a beverage and they adopt recklessness as usual behaviour. They enter the chamber of love in an intoxicated condition; their passions exhaust their vital forces; their cravings dissipate their essence; they do not know how to find contentment with themselves; they are not skilled in the control of their spirits. They devote all their attention to the amusement of their minds, thus cutting themselves off from the joys of long life. Their rising and retiring is without regularity. For these reasons they reach only one half of the hundred years and then they degenerate.[27]

Alcohol, in fact, was a much more serious problem in China than marijuana, and opium overshadowed both in the attention it later received. The Chinese experiment with marijuana as a psychoactive agent was really more of a flirtation than an orgy. Those among the Chinese who hailed it as the “giver of delight” never amounted to more than a small segment of the population.”



Marijuana study results…http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/studies-claim-medical-marijuana-may-reduce-suicide-rates-traffic-fatalities/

Studies claim medical marijuana may reduce suicide rates, traffic fatalities

BY ROBERT PURSELL February 6, 2014 at 1:02 PM EST

Marijuana plants

Two new studies claim that legalizing medical marijuana could be a lifesaver, especially for certain demographic groups. Photo by Tony Avelar/The Christian Science Monitor via Getty Images

Contrary to the claims of outdated anti-marijuana PSA’s, a new study published in the the American Public Journal of Health claims that legalizing medical marijuana can reduce suicide rates by five percent among the general population and by as much as 10 percent among young male population.

The study, co-written by professors from Montana State, San Diego State, and the University of Colorado at Denver, analyzed 17 years worth of statistics in search of shifts in suicide rates per 10,000 people in states where medical marijuana was legal from 1990 to 2007. Using the statistics of states in which marijuana is still illegal as the control group, the study’s authors concluded that in states with legal medical marijuana, the suicide rate for males aged 20-29 decreased 10.9 percent, and for men aged 30-39 they saw a decrease of 9.4 percent.

The study stated that estimates for females were less precise and thus required further study.

The researchers explained that, “opponents of legalizing medical marijuana point to the large number of studies showing that marijuana use is positively associated with depression, the onset of panic attacks, psychosis, schizophrenia, and suicidal ideation.”

“However,” they continued, “the association between marijuana use and outcomes such as these could be attributable to difficult-to-measure (extraneous variables,) such as personality.”

While the conclusion stated, “The negative relationship between legalization and suicides among young men is consistent with the hypothesis that marijuana can be used to cope with stressful life events,” the researchers noted that some men in stressful situations may also use alcohol as a coping mechanism and that the topic should be further studied.

The study is particularly interesting when looked at in conjunction with author Dr. Daniel I. Rees’ May 2013 study, published by the University of Chicago Press, which concluded that traffic fatalities decrease between eight and 11 percent in states where marijuana is legal, the first year after legalization.” It also stated that total beer consumption dropped five percent post-legalization and that traffic fatalities in which at least one driver had a positive blood alcohol content level lessened by 13.2 percent.

Marijuana classified as dangerous as heroin. Nonsense

 

 

 

 

Still classified as a schedule 1 drug, marijuana gets a bad rap sitting next to heroin,LSD, and ecstasy on the same list. Anyone who has smoked marijuana and even read about the effects of heroin would know they do not belong on the same list.

“Rep. Steve Cohen (D-Tenn.) tore into deputy drug czar Michael Botticelli on Tuesday, highlighting federal drug policy’s failure to address the substances “ravaging our country” while still considering marijuana to be as dangerous as heroin.”

“Every second that we spend in this country trying to enforce marijuana laws is a second that we’re not enforcing heroin laws. And heroin and meth are the two drugs that are ravaging our country,” Cohen continued. “And every death, including Mr. Hoffman’s, is partly the responsibility of the federal government’s drug priorities for not putting total emphasis on the drugs that kill, that cause people to be addicted and have to steal to support their habit.”

Read more about this here:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/02/04/steve-cohen-marijuana-heroin_n_4726794.html?utm_hp_ref=marijuana

Marijuana has always had the power to change history

The history of marijuana always seemed interesting to me. Then I grew up and realized it is. In fact so interesting that it’s amazing its history at all. However, here in beautiful Denver, Colorado we are starting to see why the farmers way back when we’re encouraged to grow hemp on their farms. Duh! It’s obviously one of the most useful plants america has known of. And ya know government likes money so… You’d think they’d have took it a little further. With cannabis sativas almost infinite uses (including great insulative properties, food,fuel,cleaning the air,soil quality,construction, reducing the use of toxic farm chemicals,protecting forests,clothing,building material,jewelry making,medicinal properties, and oh yeah by the way its an excellent source of nutrition and youll feel real nice through it all) not only does it make sense to grow it makes sense why a new nation still learning about the land and it’s endless love and with a trying road ahead would want to invest in the farming of hemp. And they did. Until they didn’t.

“The Virginia Company, by decree of King James I in 1619, ordered every colonist to grow 100 plants specifically for export. Thus, England’s only colony in America began to grow hemp in order to meet this obligation and, soon, to serve a growing demand in other colonies. George Washington grew hemp at Mount Vernon as one of his three primary crops. The use of hemp for rope and fabric was ubiquitous throughout the 18th and 19th centuries in the United States. Medicinal preparations of cannabis became available in American pharmacies in the 1850s following an introduction to its use in Western medicine by William O’Shaughnessy a decade earlier in 1839.” -Wikipedia (Deitch, Robert (2003). Hemp – American History Revisited. New York City: Algora Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 0-87586-206-3.)

Increased restrictions and labeling of cannabis as a poison began in many states from 1906 onward. Prohibitions began in the 1920s. By the mid-1930s Cannabis was regulated as a drug in every state, including 35 states that adopted the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act. The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, Pub. 238, 75th Congress, 50 Stat. 551 (Aug. 2, 1937) was a United States Act that placed a tax on the sale of cannabis.

After the Philippines fell to Japanese forces in 1942, the Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Army urged farmers to grow hemp fiber and tax stamps for cultivation were issued to farmers. Without any change in the Marijuana Tax Act, over 400,000 acres of hemp were cultivated between 1942 and 1945. The last commercial hemp fields were planted in Wisconsin in 1957. Just watch hemp for victory, a 1943 film for farmers. A film that teaches about hemps history before the states and see for yourself. The film encourages farmers to grow hemp and briefly describes the various methods they can choose to use that have proven good.

(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W0xHCkOnn-A&feature=youtube_gdata_player)

Got to love that special tax stamp for a dollar. Maybe in 1942 but last time I checked it was about 30% here in sunny Colorado. However, with an instate ID or a red card you can knock that down to 15%, which is a relatively fair rate. Considering. Many dispensaries have to carry a lot of cash due to banks not accepting “drug money” and the fact that some of that money is going directly to the community boosting the economy as well as keeping ppl off other easily attainable drugs (you know the real drugs…pharmacuticals and the like.) I’m still debating whether or not it is better to give my hard earned money for medicinal marijuana to dispensaries and recreational stores over my buddy, friend, “hippy stoner kid” , because the tax is just out of the roof, and again you must be part of their system. Still, it has a come a far way from harmless kids and adults alike going to jail for getting high. And this Is progress. Usually the tokers are way more informative than any doctor I’ve been too. “You need to sleep more?..here smoke this.” “You need to eat more smoke this, headache….smoke this. ” I much rather know what is going into my body, proven not to have horrendous side effects than getting random chemicals, who knows what else inside that pill prescribed by a supposedly scholared Phd. Here’s some things they don’t teach you in med school. There’s a reason why too, profit.

So after they decided it was a good and economical idea to grow hemp, why on earth would they have stopped. This is where it usually gets interesting. Government bans drinking, prohibition causes them to lose money, they un-ban it. Sounds about right. So why did they choose to keep it banned till 2014. Not only have they collected money from the war on drugs, they have put many a good people in jail using our tax dollars to keep them there for smoking in their own home,or growing,. I still can’t imagine that the money made doing this would equal half that as if they would have continued the cultivation of marijuana creating an economy that today would look a lot nicer than it currently does. In my humble opinion I think America made a huge mistake turning their back on the farming of hemp in pursuit of money and control, it’s greed.

“Anyone concerned about the failure of our 69-billion-a-year War on Drugs should watch this 12-minute program. You will meet front line ranking police officers who give us a devastating report on why it cannot work. It is a must see for any journalist or public official dealing with this issue” -Walter Cronkite

(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LayaGk0TMDc&feature=youtube_gdata_player)

“In 1936 the Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN) noticed an increase of reports of people smoking marijuana, which further increased in 1937. The Bureau drafted a legislative plan for Congress seeking a new law, and the head of the FBN, Harry J. Anslinger, ran a campaign against marijuana” – Wikipedia

(“Harry J. Anslinger, U. S. Commissioner of Narcotics and Will Oursler : The Murderers, the story of the narcotic gangs, Pages: 541-554, 1961”.)

( Hempology.org. 1945-04-26. Retrieved 2011-03-09.
“Additional Statement of H.J. Anslinger, Commissioner of Narcotics”. Druglibrary.org. Retrieved 2006-03-25.)

“Newspaper mogul William Randolph Hearst’s empire of newspapers began publishing what is known as “yellow journalism”, demonizing the cannabis plant and putting emphasis on connections between cannabis and violent crime. Several scholars argue that the goal was to destroy the hemp industry,largely as an effort of Hearst, Andrew Mellon and the Du Pont family. They argue that with the invention of the decorticator hemp became a very cheap substitute for the wood pulp that was used in the newspaper industry.They also believe that Hearst felt that this was a threat to his extensive timber holdings. Mellon was Secretary of the Treasury, as well as the wealthiest man in America, and had invested heavily in nylon, DuPont’s new synthetic fiber. He considered nylon’s success to depend on its replacement of the traditional resource, hemp” -wikipedia

“In 1973 President Richard Nixon’s “Reorganization Plan Number Two” proposed the creation of a single federal agency to enforce federal drug laws and Congress accepted the proposal, as there was concern regarding the growing availability of drugs.As a result, on July 1, 1973, the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD) and the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement (ODALE) merged to create the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).On December 1, 1975, the Supreme Court ruled that it was “not cruel or unusual for Ohio to sentence someone to 20 years for having or selling cannabis.”-wikipedia

“In 1976 California law reduced the penalty for personal possession of an ounce or less of marijuana from a felony to a citable misdemeanor with a maximum fine of $100. Possession of more than an ounce was made a misdemeanor, making the maximum fine $500 and/or six months in jail. After the law went into effect, the state’s annual spending towards marijuana laws went down 74%. Prior to the law, the state had been spending from $35 million to $100 million” -wikipedia

“During the Reagan Administration the Sentencing Reform Act provisions of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 created the Sentencing Commission, which established mandatory sentencing guidelines. The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 reinstated mandatory prison sentences, including large scale cannabis distribution. Later an amendment created a three-strikes law, which created mandatory 25-years imprisonment for repeated serious crimes – including certain drug offenses- and allowed the death penalty to be used against “drug kingpins.” -wikipedia

“In 1996 California voters passed Proposition 215, which legalized medical cannabis. The Oakland Cannabis Buyers’ Cooperative was created to “provide seriously ill patients with a safe and reliable source of medical cannabis, information and patient support” in accordance with Proposition 215.
In January 1998 the U.S. Government sued Oakland Cannabis Buyers’ Cooperative for violating federal laws created as a result of Controlled Substances Act of 1970. On May 14, 2001, the United States Supreme Court ruled in United States v. Oakland Cannabis Buyers’ Coop that federal anti-drug laws do not permit an exception for medical cannabis and rejected the common-law medical necessity defense to crimes enacted under the Controlled Substances Act because Congress concluded cannabis has “no currently accepted medical use” when the act was passed in 1970.” -wikipedia

“In 1978 Robert Randall sued the federal government for arresting him for using cannabis to treat his glaucoma. The judge ruled Randall needed cannabis for medical purposes and required the Food and Drug Administration set up a program to grow cannabis on a farm at the University of Mississippi and to distribute 300 cannabis cigarettes a month to Randall. In 1992 George H. W. Bush discontinued the program after Randall tried to make AIDS patients eligible for the program. Thirteen people were already enrolled and were allowed to continue receiving cannabis cigarettes; today the government still ships cannabis cigarettes to seven people. Irvin Rosenfeld, who became eligible to receive cannabis from the program in 1982 to treat rare bone tumors, urged the George W. Bush administration to reopen the program; however, he was unsuccessful.”  -wikipedia

In 1973 Oregon decriminalized cannabis. Laws changed again in 1995 that reduced penalties. Colorado, Alaska, Ohio, and California followed suit in 1975. By 1978 Mississippi, North Carolina, New York, and Nebraska had some form of cannabis decriminalization.

“On November 6, 2012, Colorado Amendment 64 (2012) was passed by initiative, thereby legalizing the recreational use of cannabis. Colorado Governor John Hickenlooper signed two bills on May 28, 2013 that made Colorado the world’s first fully regulated recreational cannabis market for adults. Hickenlooper explained to the media: “Certainly, this industry will create jobs. Whether it’s good for the brand of our state is still up in the air. But the voters passed Amendment 64 by a clear majority. That’s why we’re going to implement it as effectively as we possibly can.” In its independent analysis, the Colorado Center on Law & Policy found that the state could expect a to see “$60 million in total combined savings and additional revenue for Colorado’s budget with a potential for this number to double after 2017” – Wikipedia

“On February 5, 2013 Colorado representative Jared Polis introduced Ending Federal Marijuana Prohibition Act of 2013 (H.R. 499; 113th Congress), a bill that would decriminalize marijuana on the federal level, instead treating it as a substance to be regulated in a similar manner to alcohol. The act has not been approved by the Congress” -Wikipedia

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ending_Federal_Marijuana_Prohibition_Act_of_2013_(H.R._499;_113th_Congress)

So, here we are today. Fighting to continue the restoration of our right to grow. In 1619 kings ordered farmers to grow, by 1942 farmers were watching films on why hemp is the best crop to grow. Then something took a turn and around 1936 certain powers realized they could be out of business due to the fact that marijuana was so useful it could save forests from the devastating effects that later came from wood pulp for paper production. Hemp farming threatened the very existence of companies looking to make a big buck on land resources. Dupont had money invested in synthetic fibers which hemp can also replace, for much less. As the truth came out about hemps potential, the powers that be quickly saw and redirected the stereotypes to fit their needs. Ignoring the needs of the people, and country America set out to blacklist the marijuana industry.

It is baffling how our government does business. If they aren’t the only ones making money…they pass bogus laws to continue enslaving us to the machine. That’s fine we will adapt, we will be patient, we will grow anyways, we will smoke anyways, and rise above it. WE have the power to change history. We know that money isn’t power or happiness. With that knowledge we will find an even better solution to all the solutions our government divided up into problems. Just as the government took action to control marijuana farming, thus creating more problems such as crime and countless victims spending time and money on fines and jail time
, they seek to control our food as well, for profit of course (more on why the farming industry used to be a solution but now is a problem later). With the re introduction of hemp farming we could change the world. Bring back the good ol’ days, so to speak. Only better because we are more aware and conscious of our actions and the destruction or peace they can cause.